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Archaeological and Historical Collection   
The collecting of archaeological objects started in our region in the Roman Catholic Gymnasium from Şumuleu in the 19th century. Most of these objects consisted of earthen pots and other fragmentary - objects.

The region of Ciuc is one of the least searched areas from archaeological point of view: there have been only few and incomplete excavations, and we have no documentation at all. The relationships of settlements in different ages have remained in mystery, we know very little about the cemeteries and fortifications of the region. In spite of this we will try to present some characteristic objects of the different historical periods.

  • Stone Age: a 50000 years old ice axe made of stone, from the brook of Cser (brook near the public baths of Miercurea - Ciuc)
  • The Neolithic is represented by more objects that were found in Ineu (Csíkszentgyörgy) and Cozmeni (Csíkkozmás): 55 bone objects, 99 objects made of stone, ballasts for trawls, spindles and looms. We have more than 30 small figurines made of clay representing people or animals. These little “statues” can tell us a lot about the beliefs of the man of the Neolithic.  
  • The Transition Period. The grave from Sânmartin (Csíkszentmárton), opened in 1998, belongs to the Globular Amphora Culture (cca. 2000 B.C.).
  • The most represantative site of the Bronze Age is the one from Leliceni (Csíkszentlélek), called Kőhegy, where the archaeologists found different kinds of tools, such as chisels and hatchets made of stone and clay figurines. They also found moulds made of clay, which is proof of the fact that the population was interested in making bronze objects. From other places we have several bronze hatchets, sickles and lance tips.
  • The Iron Age is a well – searched era in our region. We have more than 500 finds from Mihăileni (Csíkszentmihály) and Sânsimion (Csíkszentsimon), among which we have to mention the eared iron hatchet which is the earliest iron object in the region of Ciuc. The grinding stones prove the existence of the growing of corn. The earthen pots and decorated pot fractions were mostly discovered in Delniţa (Csíkdelne), Ineu (Csíkjenőfalva), Racu (Csíkrákos), Jigodin (Zsögöd), Sâncrăieni (Csíkszentkirály), Sânsimion (Csíkszentsimon) and Sânmartin (Csíkszentmárton). In 1953 in Sâncrăieni   were found several silver objects - cups, bracelets, fibulae -, but the museum holds only the copy of these objects, as the originals are being kept in the National Museum of Bucharest since 1972.  
  • The Roman Epoch. The Ciuc – basin was not part of the Roman province, Dacia, but they were neighbours to each – other: the closest points to Ciuc on the limes were the castrum from Olteni (Oltszem) and the watch - towers from Homorod Băi (Homoródfürdő). The Roman Empire did not tolerate on its frontiers the „barbarian” settlements, so they tried to enter into alliance with them or to pacify these territories. That is why the continuity of the Dacian settlements stopped in our region. The few objects (27) found from this period are probably the result of trade or plunder.
  • The great migrations. We have only few finds from the period of the 3rd – 9th centuries. The reason for this is that before 1989 the migration period was not “popular”, and we know only very little about the settlements of that time. On the other hand, due to the attacks of the nomadic people, the basin of Ciuc became depopulated. However, the settling of the Gothic people, the attacks of the Huns and the appearance of the Slavic (and perhaps Avar) people can be proved by different archaeological finds.
  • The conquest and the age of the Árpáds. It is still a polemic question whether the road of the Hungarian settlers led through Transylvania, or if the territory of Transylvania was occupied later on. Unfortunately, the finds from Ciuc do not answer this question, but during the 1950s – 60s there were found some objects that indicate the settlement of the Hungarians in the 10th – 11th centuries. In the last few years there have been several excavations that searched this period.
  • Late middle age, early modern age. This is another neglected period of the former political regime. The archaeological researches are incomplete, but thanks to the collection and research of the three former museum directors (Dénes Kovács, Pál János, János Szőcs) the archaeological collection of the museum owns more than 500 objects, characteristic to this era. The most valuable among these objects are those coming out from excavations, such as: the finds of the excavation from Cibrefalva, the objects found on the plot of the Andrássy – mansion (Sâncrăieni), in the Mikó – Castle (Miercurea - Ciuc) and in the environment of the Abaffi – mansion (Tomeni). These finds consist mainly of tiles and earthen pots (cca. 400 pieces). The tiles found on the territory of Ciucsângeorgiu (Csíkszentgyörgy), Sântimru (Csíkszentimre),  Sâncrăieni (Csíkszentkirály), Mihăileni (Csíkszentmihály), Păuleni (Csíkpálfalva), Şumuleu Ciuc (Csíksomlyó), Sânsimion (Csíkszentsimon) and Miercurea – Ciuc (Csíkszereda) illustrate the characteristics of the local folk art of the time. The majority of the objects from this era are taken in inventory without any documentation and context information, so practically it is impossible to give them historical meaning.

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We have cca. 500 objects in our historical – collection: 228 photographs, 92 written documents, the rest is made out from objects made of metal, stone, clay and textile.

The most interesting of them are:
  • A kind of Teleki table
  • Photos with the occasion of the 300 years anniversary of the Catholic Gymnasium; photos of the gymnasium’s old boys from 1926; the historico – cultural photo album of Vilmos Hellwig about the amateur artistic movements between the wars;   
  • The striped cloak of Dr. Miklós Adler from Auschwitz;
  • The indictments from the North – Transylvanian communist lawsuits from 1941 – 1943;
  •  Weapons: sabres, daggers, rifles;
Half of our jewellery collection (50 objects) consists of brooches, but it contains bracelets, jewellery boxes, silver snuff – boxes and ash – trays, silver glasses, pendants, rosaries as well. The 17th century jewellery – box, the damaged Transylvanian bracelet and the bracelet made of silver coins from 1849 deserve a very special attention.

The numismatic collection (2201 pieces) of the museum holds 500 paper money, banknotes, and 400 silver coins dating from the antiquity up to the time of the dualism. The rest of the collection consists of copper, bronze and other types of coins, and seals.




The Sekler Museum of Ciuc
Miercurea Ciuc, Cetatii Square no. 2
Harghita County, Romania

The Nagy Imre Art Gallery
Miercurea Ciuc, Zsögödi Nagy Imre Street no. 175.

The Kossuth Gallery
Miercurea Ciuc, Kossuth Lajos Street no. 12
Postal address:
Muzeul Secuiesc al Ciucului
530132 Miercurea Ciuc, Piaţa Cetăţii nr.2
Judeţul Harghita, Romania

Tel: (004) 0266-372024
Tel/Fax: (004) 0266-311727
Mobil: (004) 0753-073531

E-mail: info@csikimuzeum.ro
Web: www.csikimuzeum.ro
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